Instead, the body just supported decisions already made by the secretary-general. Ortega and his two brothers, grew up to become revolutionaries. Nissan President, luxury car manufactured by Nissan; Studebaker President, a luxury car made by Studebaker; Film and television. The US continued the economic embargo, promising to lift it only if the Sandinistas were ousted in the election, providing financial support to the opposition candidate, and promising aid to Nicaragua should she be elected.  Thousands of Indians fled to take refuge across the border in Honduras, and Ortega's government imprisoned 14,000 in Nicaragua. During the formative years, the country underwent a period of political and social unrest marked by dictatorship, fiscal crisis and poverty. His mother was imprisoned by Somoza's National Guard for being in possession of "love letters," which the police said were coded political missives. Under the leadership of Ortega and Tomas Borge, the radicals regrouped into the "principled" faction, and branded themselves the Izquierda Democratica (ID), or Democratic Left (DL).  NarvÃ¡ez took a complaint to the Inter American Human Rights Commission, which was ruled admissible on October 15, 2001.  The DL fought the Chamorro government with disruptive labor strikes and demonstrations, and renewed calls for the revolutionary reconstruction of Nicaraguan society.  According to government estimates, Nicaragua has passed from 25% renewable electricity to 52% between 2007 and 2016. In the February 1990 elections under the Arias agreement, Ortega and the Sandinistas lost to a right-centrist coalition led by Violeta Barrios de Chamorro. After attaining power, the FSLN embarked upon an ambitious programme of social reform.  The CPCs also undermined municipal autonomy, as they effectively functioned as local governments by determining the distribution of public goods and services. In 2007 Ortega stated that Nicaragua did not accept the One China Policy of the PRC government and that Nicaragua reserved the right to maintain official diplomatic relations with the ROC. In 1981, United States President Ronald Reagan accused the FSLN of joining with Soviet-backed Cuba in supporting Marxist revolutionary movements in other Latin American countries, such as El Salvador. Two conservative parties captured a combined 23% of the vote. Photos and bios of the current Heads of State, Dictators and First Ladies. , From July 19â21, 1991, the FSLN held a National Congress to mend the rifts between members and form a new overarching political program. Nicaragua’s Ruling Sandinistas Fall Victim to Covid-19, Highlighting the Disease’s Spread. While imprisoned at the El Modelo jail, just outside Managua, Ortega wrote poems, one of which he titled "I Never Saw Managua When Miniskirts Were in Fashion". Daniel Ortega is the current president of Nicaragua. But cutting ties with Taipei was a sad and painful decision because of the friendship between Nicaragua and Taiwan's people and government.  During a telephone conversation between the two, Ortega told Gaddafi that he was "waging a great battle to defend his nation" and stated that "it's at difficult times that loyalty and resolve are put to the test. It was used as such from 1999 up to 2007 by the presidents at the time.  The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks doomed Ortega's chances, as the threat of a U.S. invasion became an issue. Four of the remaining five are controlled by Mexican mogul Ãngel GonzÃ¡lez, and are generally considered to be aligned with Ortega's ruling FSLN party. Nicaragua Events of 2018", "The Betrayal of the Sandinista Revolution", "Review follows election fraud allegations in Nicaragua", "Conozca como Daniel Ortega preparo el fraude electoral", "Irregularities in Nicaraguan Municipal Elections", "Nicaraguan opposition demands election review", Voter fraud allegations directed at Nicaragua's Sandinistas, COMMENT: The Mugabe of Latin America âCarlos R Chamorro, "Ortega Says Capitalism In Its Death Throes", "Nicaragua's Ortega says crisis is God punishing U.S", "Presidente de la CSJ de Nicaragua tilda de "ilegal" reelecciÃ³n de Ortega", "NICARAGUA: LA IGLESIA, CONTRA LA REELECCIÃN "ILEGAL" DE ORTEGA", "NÃºÃ±ez: "ReelecciÃ³n ilegal de Ortega aumenta persecuciÃ³n contra sociedad civil, Nicaragua brings in abortion ban: Nicaraguan President Enrique BolaÃ±os has signed into law a ban on all abortions, even in cases when a woman's life is judged to be at risk, Abortion Outlawed in Nicaragua Ten Days Before Controversial Elections, "Nicaragua electoral body confirms Ortega win â Americas", "Nicaragua: Ortega allowed to run for third successive term", "Nicaragua Country report/Freedom of the Press/2016", "Nicaragua suppresses opposition to ensure one-party election, critics say", "Nicaragua's President Picks Wife as Running Mate", "Nicaragua's Ortega re-elected president", "Nicaragua's president Daniel Ortega hasn't been seen in a month", "During pandemic, Nicaraguan doctors face political pressure", "Peaceful Protests against Nicaraguan Social Security Reforms Violently Repressed", "Nicaragua Roiled by Protests Over Social Security Benefits", "Facing censorship, Nicaraguan journalists and citizens turn to social media", "Amidst unrest, Nicaraguan journalists use digital innovation to share information", "In Nicaragua, the political battle is moving from the streets to the negotiating table", "As Nicaragua Death Toll Grows, Support for Ortega Slips", "Nicaragua Protests Grow Increasingly Violent, 100 Killed Since April", "Protests on Nicaragua's Mother's Day turn deadly", "Nicaragua: Violent attack on mass Mother's Day march in Managua", "Estados Unidos condena masacre del DÃa de las Madres y pide una investigaciÃ³n inmediata", "Nicaragua: US Should Sanction President Ortega", "Daniel Ortega set for Nicaragua election victory but heroic sheen wearing off", Nicaragua in 2010 compared to Nicaragua in 2006: the concrete achievements of Daniel Ortega's government, "Labour rights improve under Ortega government", "Daniel Ortega and Nicaragua's Soft Authoritarianism", "Nicaragua Under Daniel Ortega's Second Presidency: Daniel-Style Politics as Usual? , Possible explanations for his loss include that the Nicaraguan people were disenchanted with the Ortega government as well as the fact that already in November 1989, the White House had announced that the economic embargo against Nicaragua would continue unless Violeta Chamorro won. " This occurred despite the fact that the breakaway Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS) continued to oppose the FSLN, running former Mayor of Managua Herty Lewites as its candidate for president. The U.S. ambassador even made an appearance with the PLC's Enrique Bolanos while distributing food aid. A woman wearing a protective face mask walks in front of a picture of the Nicaraguan president, Daniel Ortega, and vice-president, Rosario Murillo, in Managua, Nicaragua, on … , Ortega was re-elected president with a vote on November 6 and confirmation on November 16, 2011.  Murillo serves as the Ortega government's spokeswoman and a government minister, among other positions.  The Ortega brothers forged alliances with a wide array of anti-Somoza forces, including Catholic and Protestant activists, and other non-Marxist civil society groups. , For more details on Ortega's past presidency, see, Current heads of state in Central American countries, Baumeister, Eduardo.  While non-emergency abortions have long been illegal in Nicaragua, recently even abortions "in the case where the pregnancy endangers the mother's life", otherwise known as therapeutic abortions have been made illegal in the days before the 2006 election, with a six-year prison term in such cases, tooâa move supported by Ortega.  Many Nicaraguans, including prominent former Sandinista leaders, such as Daniel Ortega's own brother Humberto Ortega, have accused him of forgetting where he came from and catering to his own capitalist interests, calling his government monopolistic and authoritarian and denouncing him as a "Bloody Dictator". He also stressed his belief that the Sandinistas had the goal of bringing "dignity" to Latin America, and not necessarily to hold on to government posts. Daniel Ortega, in full José Daniel Ortega Saavedra, (born November 11, 1945, La Libertad, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan guerrilla leader, member of the Sandinista junta that took power in 1979, and the elected president of Nicaragua (1984–90, 2007– ). Ortega emphasized peace and reconciliation in his campaign, and selected a former Contra leader, Jaime Morales Corazo, as his running mate. , In June 2016, the Nicaraguan supreme court ruled to oust Eduardo Montealegre, the leader of the main opposition party, leaving the main opposition coalition with no means of contesting the November 2016 national elections. An anti-government protester is dragged away and arrested by police as security forces disrupt an opposition march coined "United for Freedom" in Managua, Nicaragua, Sunday, Oct. 14, 2018. JosÃ© Daniel Ortega Saavedra (Spanish pronunciation: [daËnjel oÉ¾ËteÉ£a]; born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979â1985) and then as President (1985â1990). , For this decision, the Sandinista magistrates formed the required quorum by excluding the opposition magistrates and replacing them with Sandinista substitutes, violating the Nicaraguan constitution. The officeholder is recognized as the Chief of State and Head of Government. Ortega was one of the leading commanders of the forces that ousted Somoza in July 1979 and became the head of the ruling junta at the head of the government of national reconstruction. These have been the demands of the Nicaraguan opposition.  Ortega also stated, "We are not breaking relations with the Colombian people.  In the weeks before the November election, Ortega gave a U.N. speech denouncing talks held in Rio de Janeiro on electoral reform. décès, hospitalisations, réanimations, guérisons par département One of the key accords of the pact was to lower the ratio necessary to win a presidential election in the first round from 45% to 35%, a change in electoral law that would become decisive in Ortega's favor in the 2006 elections. 1 decade ago. as a measure to ensure stability, critics[which?]  The relations were restored with the resolution at a Rio Group summit held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, on March 7, 2008. In hospitals "ruling-party activists ensure no information leaks out", and it quotes a doctor (anesthesiologist MarÃa Nela Escoto) complaining that in the public hospital where she works "everything is secret. However the same unpopular decree which "unilaterally overhauling the social-security tax system" (mentioned below) and precipitated the unrest in April 2018, also broke Ortega's arrangement with COSEP, and along with US sanctions, brought a sharp economic drop that as of mid-2020 is still "crippling" Nicaragua's economy.  Altogether, these policies have helped to reduce high levels of poverty and inequality in Nicaragua. , At the 1984 general election Ortega won the presidency with 67% of the vote and took office on January 10, 1985. , He was imprisoned in 1967 for taking part in armed robbery of a branch of the Bank of America. Upon his release, the result of a Sandinista hostage taking, he went to Cuba and next returned to Nicaragua to continue what was now a war against the government. Most foreign and independent observers noted this pluralism in debunking the Reagan administration chargeâubiquitous in the US mediaâthat it was a "Soviet-style sham" election. Born into a working-class family, from an early age Ortega opposed Nicaragua's dictator, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, and became involved in the underground movement against his government. Nicaragua is the largest country of Central America.  The constitutional reforms also gave Ortega the sole power to appoint military and police commanders.  Although the U.S. initially supplied the ruined post-revolution Nicaragua with economic aid, relations quickly soured. PlanetRulers - Current Heads of State & Dictators. Martin Kriele, âPower and Human Rights in Nicaragua,â German Comments, April 1986, pp.  As a result of the fraud allegations, the European Union suspended $70m of aid, and the US $64m.  In Judicial Decision 504, issued on October 19, 2009, the Supreme Court of Justice of Nicaragua declared portions of Articles 147 and 178 of the Constitution of Nicaragua inapplicable; these provisions concerned the eligibility of candidates for president, vice-president, mayor, and vice-mayorâa decision that had the effect of allowing Ortega to run for reelection in 2011.  The Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) opposed the Sandinistasâ economic reform. ), In April 2018, student protests over a nature reserve fire expanded to cover an unpopular decree that would have cut social security benefits and increased taxpayer contributions. In later years, Ortega's previously far left politics moderated more and more, pursuing pro-business policies and even rapprochement with the Catholic Church, with the adoption of strong anti-abortion policies by his government in the 2000s, and adoption of strong religious rhetoric by the previously atheist Ortega. The current president, however, refused to move in citing the high maintenance costs as his primary reason. Ortega was born in La Libertad, department of Chontales, Nicaragua. The Sandinistas softened their anti-imperialist rhetoric, with Ortega calling the U.S. âour great neighbor,â and vowing to cooperate âwithin a framework of respect, equality, and justice.â The image change failed, as Aleman's Liberal Alliance came first with 51.03% of the vote, while Ortega's FSLN secured 37.75%. On May 25, 2008, Ortega, upon learning of the death of FARC guerrilla leader Manuel Marulanda in Colombia, expressed condolences to the family of Marulanda and solidarity with the FARC and called Marulanda an extraordinary fighter who battled against profound inequalities in Colombia. , On March 6, 2008, following the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis, Ortega announced that Nicaragua was breaking diplomatic ties with Colombia "in solidarity with the Ecuadorian people".  The opposition coalition had called the election a "farce" and had called for the boycott of the election. Ortega personally attacked Lewitesâ Jewish background, compared him to Judas, and warned he âcould end up hanged.â However, Lewites died several months before the elections. 56â7, 63â7, a chapter excerpted from his Nicaragua: Das blutende Herz Amerikas (Piper, 1986).  Upon release in 1974, he was exiled to Cuba, where he received training in guerrilla warfare from Fidel Castro's MarxistâLeninist government. , On September 9, 1994, Ortega gained more power after taking over Sergio Ramirez's seat in the Asamblea Sandinista (Sandinista Assembly). charged that the amendments threatened Nicaraguan democracy. The office was created in the Constitution of 1854. Obituaries. , According to Tim Rogers, until the 2018 unrest, as president Ortega presided over "the fastest-growing economy in Central America" and was a "poster child for foreign investment and citizen security in a region known for gangs and unrest". De 1825 jusqu'à la Constitution de 1838, le Nicaragua fait partie de la République fédérale d'Amérique centrale et est dirigé localement par un chef de l'État (Jefe del Estado). The executive is comprised of the President, Vice-president, and the Council of Ministers. Ortega met with the ROC President Ma Ying-jeou in 2009 and both agreed to improve the diplomatic ties between both countries. They were joined in the north by Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN) and in the south by former Sandinistas and peasantry who, under the leadership of EdÃ©n Pastora, were resisting forced collectivization. Other positions Liberal party ( Partido Liberal Constitucionalista, PLC ) anti-government in. 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